1020 females per 1000 males, for the first time in the country’s population, total fertility rate decreased to 2.

India Records more Women than Men: For the first time in India’s population, the number of females per 1000 males has gone up to 1020. This information has come out in the National Family Health Survey. NITI Aayog Member (Health) Dr Vinod Kumar Paul and Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Secretary Rajesh Bhushan released the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) factsheet for 2019-21 on Wednesday. Earlier, in NFHS-4, the number of females per 1000 males was 991.

The findings of NFHS-5 in respect of 22 states and union territories included in the first phase of the survey were released in December 2020. The states and union territories surveyed in Phase 2 are Arunachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, Odisha, Puducherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. The NFHS-5 survey work has been conducted in about 6.1 lakh sample households in 707 districts of the country (as of March 2017), covering 724,115 females and 101,839 males to provide separate estimates up to the district level.

    • The Total Fertility Rate (TFR), the average number of children per woman at the national level, has come down from 2.2 to 2.0 and from 1.4 in Chandigarh to 2.4 in Uttar Pradesh in all 14 states/UTs. Except Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh, all Phase-II states have achieved replacement level (2.1) of fertility.
    • The overall Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased from 54 per cent to 67 per cent at all India level and in almost all Phase-II States/UTs except Punjab.
    • The number of women receiving four or more ANC visits recommended by healthcare providers has increased from 51 per cent to 58 per cent at an all-India level. All Phase-II States/UTs have shown improvement between 2015-16 and 2019-20 except Punjab.
    • At the all India level, hospital births have increased from 79 percent to 89 percent. Hospital deliveries in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu are 100 per cent and over 90 per cent in 7 out of 12 states/UTs in Phase II.
    • Along with the increase in the number of births in hospitals, there has also been a substantial increase in C-section deliveries in many States/UTs, especially in private health facilities.
    • The use of modern methods of contraceptives has also increased in almost all the States/UTs.
    • A substantial improvement has been recorded in the complete immunization drive among children aged 12-23 months from 62 per cent to 76 per cent at the all-India level. 11 out of 14 states/UTs have more than three-fourth of the fully vaccinated children aged 12-23 months and this is the maximum (90 per cent) for Odisha.
    • Anemia in children and women remains a matter of concern. More than half of children and women (including pregnant women) despite intake of Iron Folic Acid (IFA) tablets for 180 days or more by pregnant women in all Phase-II States/UTs and at all India level as compared to NFHS-4 ) suffer from anemia.
    • Exclusive breastfeeding of children below 6 months of age has improved from 55 per cent in 2015-16 to 64 per cent in 2019-21 at all-India level. All the States/Union Territories of Phase II are also showing great progress.

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